Hey guys, it's been a long time no see around.
Finally i had encourage myself to write down some military things again, quite a challenge to be honest. I've been busy most of my time, but now i have time and hopefully this not going to be the last.
Today we'll be talking about the KTO Rosomak, the Polish 8x8 wheeled armored personnel carrier for Polish Land Forces that also appear in Project Reality for Polish faction. Let's get into it!
- What is KTO Rosomak? Why did it exist?
The KTO Rosomak (Kołowy Transporter Opancerzony Rosomak or in Polish lit. wheeled armored personnel carrier Wolverine) is an 8×8 multi-role military vehicle produced by Rosomak S.A. (formerly Wojskowe Zakłady Mechaniczne) in Siemianowice Śląskie (Upper Silesia), a Polish Armaments Group company. The vehicle is a licensed variant of Patria's armored modular vehicle. The vehicle were produced in many versions and successively modified in Poland based on the licensed base version of the Patria AMV XC-360P vehicle, designed by the Finnish company Patria. It is in service with the Polish Armed Forces. In the basic version, it is armed with a 30mm autocannon in the OTO-Melara HITFIST turret.
Base vehicle without the turret installed, note on how flat the upper part of the vehicle and missing smoke dischargers.
- History of the vehicle, what's the APC made for?
Designed to meet Polish criteria, including the buoyancy requirement, by the Finnish company Patria Vehicles, under the name Patria AMV (Armored Modular Vehicle). In December 2002, the construction was selected by Poland in a tender for wheeled armored personnel carriers. It was assumed that the basic version would be armed with an automatic cannon, being in fact an infantry fighting vehicle according to international agreements. The new APC were to replace the obsolete Czech OT-64 SKOT APC's and partially the BWP-1 IFV currently in service with the Polish Land Forces. The name "Rosomak" or "Wolverine" was chosen in a competition organized by the monthly magazine, Nowa Technika Wojskowa.
The old but gold, Polish OT-64 SKOT armored personnel carrier and BWP-1 infantry fighting vehicle.
In December 2002, the Polish Ministry of National Defense signed a contract to buy 690 Patria AMV vehicles, to be manufactured in Poland. The main competitors of the AMV were the MOWAG Piranha and Steyr Pandur. As part of the initial order, 690 vehicles were to be delivered in two basic variants: 313 combat IFVs and 377 transport-special base vehicles. In October 2013 the order increased to 997 for delivery between 2014 and 2019.
The competitors of Polish APC program, from left to right: Patria AMV from Finland (winner), MOWAG Piranha IV/V from Switzerland and Steyr Pandur II from Austria.
The contract for the supply of KTO Rosomak (a variant of the AMV XC-360P) in the years 2004-2013 was signed on April 15, 2003. 600 of the 690 ordered vehicles were produced in Wojskowe Zakłady Mechaniczne in Siemianowice Śląskie. The Ministry of National Defense was to pay almost 5 billion PLN (new Zloty, Polish monetary unit) for the delivery of 690 Rosomak armored personnel carriers in the years 2005–2012. This amount included the cost of 313 OTO-Melara HITFIST-30P (30 mm) turrets from Italy, for 308 million USD (including 241 ones that are license-produced in Poland). The actual cost turned out to be higher due to unplanned armor reinforcement and other modifications necessary mainly for Polish military contingents. The value of the HITFIST-30P turret supplied by Bumar is 53% of the value of the vehicle, and the price of a single vehicle was approximately 10 million PLN.
Patria AMV XC-360, tested in a field. Soon it renamed into XC-360P for Polish Armed Forces adoption and earned the nickname "Rosomak" or "Wolverine".
Note the Remote Weapon System mounted on top, could be what we would saw of cancelled Rosomak-1 with RWS module.
By the decision of the Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces of December 31, 2004, the vehicle was accepted for armament. The first KTO Rosomak, made in 2004, were handed over to the Army on January 8, 2005 (three in the combat version with the HITFIST-30P turret and 6 basic without armament). In addition to these, in 2005, 82 Rosomaks were delivered to the Army, including 42 base chassis, and in 2006, 39 vehicles (only base chassis). The model became copy No. 41, on which minor corrections required by the Army were introduced. Ultimately, on the basis of the first contract, the Army received a total of 570 vehicles, including 359 in the IFV version.
The initial plans assumed the order of 690 vehicles, including:
- 313 Rosomak armored personnel carriers with a HITFIST-30P turret (for Infantry Fighting Vehicle or IFV role)
- 125 Rosomak-1 armored personnel carriers with a machine gun (possibly with mounted UKM, NSW, WKM-B in NATO 50 Cal. or automatic grenade launchers, such as Mk. 19 etc.)
- 78 command vehicles
- 41 medical evacuation vehicles
- 34 technical assistance vehicles
- 32 reconnaissance vehicles (6×6)
- 23 artillery vehicles
- 22 engineering vehicles
- 17 chemical reconnaissance vehicles
- 5 engineering reconnaissance vehicles
KTO Rosomak and Rosomak-1 APC's. Although Rosomak-1 didn't enter service in the Army, the successor Rosomak-M2 and M3 did enter, deployed and serve in Afghanistan.
At the same time, the Rosomak-1 APC and specialized versions were to be armed with a remotely controlled module with a 12.7 mm machine gun (249 vehicles in total), while 89 out of 313 HITFIST-30P turrets were to be integrated with Spike-LR anti-tank missile launchers. For a long time, other versions were not yet ready and the only variant actually produced was the Rosomak IFV with the HITFIST-30P turret and unarmed base chassis, mostly stored and awaiting selection of armament and equipment.
However, in mid-2007, decisions were made to change the number and types of ordered vehicles. First of all, the Rosomak-1 APC was abandoned, as well as the remotely controlled module with a machine gun for the other versions. Instead, it was planned to order 159 more vehicles with the HITFIST-30P turret with Spike-LR anti-tank missile launchers. The order for the HITFIST-30P turrets integrated by the Italian side with the Spike-LR launchers, however, ultimately did not take place due to the high cost and vehicles were only equipped with ordinary turrets.
Possibly a Rosomak-1 APC with mounted machine gun in a traversible turret (an UKM-2000 GPMG mounted as seen here). Unlike the later version (M2 and M3) that are fixed open turrets.
In 2007, the 6×6 armored personnel carriers were abandoned, and it was decided to base the Rosomak R1/R2 reconnaissance vehicle on the construction of an eight-wheeled infantry fighting vehicle. Finally, it was decided to use some of the basic chassis to develop a transport variant for two sections of Spike missiles (27) and a medical evacuation vehicle (33). Several more chassis were handed over to construct prototypes for other variants.
As a result, in 2008, the Army received 27 Rosomak S APC, easily adapted to transport Spike ATGM sections, and the first 6 Rosomak WEM medical evacuation vehicles with a raised superstructure in the rear part. The next Rosomak WEM's, delivered from 2009, differed in the target wider form of the superstructure, providing more space. In 2007, due to the involvement in peacekeeping missions, some of the basic vehicles were used to create a previously unforeseen logistics and transport variant, equipped with an open firing position with a cupola, shielded around. The first version, intended for the Chad contingent, had a lighter OSS-M (sort of open turret, light version) and 6 of them were built in the first half of 2008. The second version, intended for Afghanistan, had a heavier OSS-D (manufacturer's designation: M3) that are better protected. The first batch of 10 units was completed at the end of 2008, and further 11 are planned for the following year. These vehicles also received additional armor. In addition to the rebuilt, in 2008 the Army received 46 new combat Rosomaks. In 2012, a prototype version with a self-propelled Rak mortar was presented for the first time.
The interior of Rosomak-WEM.
In July 2013, Patria Land Service extended the license free of charge for another 10 years, recognizing the right to further Polish construction changes and exports as well as repairs for 40 years. Since 2013, the manufacturer has offered better armor for Rosomak, based on nanotechnology. In the same year, the delivery of another 307 vehicles was contracted. A total of 298 Rosomak chassis have been delivered under this contract by 2020. In 2015, the manufacturer and the Finnish side presented two more vehicles:
- Polish Rosomak M, with increased buoyancy
- the Finnish-Polish Rosomak XP, larger than its predecessors.
They were created with the use of components and the sum of experience gained during the construction and use of the Rosomak. The improved armor was developed in cooperation with IBD Deisenroth Engineering. In the same year, the manufacturer offered a version with a built-in 120 mm automatic mortar, presented as the Wilk fire support vehicle.
Rosomak-M and Rosomak-XP in a presentation.
In 2007, WZM signed a contract for the production of five transporters for export in 2008 for Patria, which, after extending them by 35 cm (to the AMV 8×8, L version) and equipping them, was to deliver them to the United Arab Emirates. Export orders have been carried out since 2016 and driver training is also conducted in simulators. In April 2016, the Ministry of National Defense decided to start purchasing Rosomak-based Rak vehicles.
From 2013, a version with a remotely controlled ZSSW-30 turret system, armed with a dual Spike LR ATGM launcher, a 30 mm caliber Bushmaster Mk. 44 S automatic cannon and a 7.62 mm caliber UKM-2000C coaxial machine gun, was developed by the HSW and WB Electronics consortium from 2013, at the request of the Army. A prototype of the turret was built in 2015; the program experienced delays for various reasons, but in 2020 the tower successfully passed military qualification tests. The turret is equipped with an automated fire control system by WB Electronics, Polish stabilized optoelectronic viewport GOD-1 (commander) and GOC-1 (gunner) by PCO, with thermal and television cameras and a laser rangefinder, and the SSP-1 Obra self-defense system with eight launchers of multispectral camouflage grenades. These turrets can also replace the older HITFIST-30P turrets, which are slightly lighter. The gun in the Bushmaster Mk. 44 S version allows the use of programmable ammunition. On July 5, 2022, the Ministry of National Defense signed a contract with the consortium worth about 1.7 billion PLN for the supply of 70 Rosomak wheeled IFVs equipped with ZSSW-30 turrets. They will be created from the reconstruction of the base vehicles, and the contract will be implemented in the years 2024-2027. However, due to the deterioration of the characteristics while sailing and the lack of an order for the manufacturer to improve this parameter, it was decided that the Rosomaks with the ZSSW-30 turret did not continue for production. In this version, they are equipped with six landing seats, including two on the starboard side.
Possible earlier prototypes in presentation of KTO Rosomak Heavy IFV, with ZSSW-30 turret system with Spike ATGM's mounted on left side of the turret.
In 2019, the Polish Army ordered two command vehicles (delivered in 2020), and eight more in 2020. In 2020, 60 base vehicles were also ordered to be converted to the Rosomak-S version for transporting Spike missiles. The license agreement for the production of vehicles was supposed to end in 2023, but at the end of September 2022 it was extended by an annex until the end of 2028.
- Main body construction, how strong is the chassis?
KTO Rosomak is built in an 8×8 system (with all-wheel drive). The combat Rosomak can carry 11 people (driver, commander, gunner and 8 passengers/troops). The hull is self-supporting, monocoque, welded from armor steel. Under the fuselage there is a suspension bracket in the form of a truss, to which suspension elements are attached, stiffening the structure.
The interior of basic KTO Rosomak. Passenger seats are being folded.
At the turn of 2005 and 2006, a gradual (although not complete) Polonization of Rosomak production was carried out. The first vehicles were mostly made in Finland and completed in Poland, and from Spring 2005 their hulls began to be welded at WZM. It was originally assumed that only 40 vehicles were to be of Finnish production, but the Polonization process was delayed and 9 vehicles were made in Finland in 2004 and 81 in 2005. On December 14, 2005, the first copy produced in Poland was presented. Initially, in 2005, 21% of the transporter's value came from Polish deliveries, in 2009 - 78%, and in 2011 - 94%. Chassis modules (frames with drive transmission) were initially manufactured in Finland, and from mid-2006 in Komas in Janów Lubelski (owned by the Finnish Komas Oy), using imported steel and components. Since 2009, armored steel has been supplied by HSW-Huta Stali Jakościowych SA from Stalowa Wola (earlier series of vehicles were made of imported steel). The bodies of the Rosomaks are welded from Armstal 500 (30PM) sheets with a hardness of 500HB (except for the floor from Armstal 450 sheets), external armor elements (in the floating version) are also made of Armstal 500 steel. Additional armor was made of Armstal 550 steel with a hardness of approx. 580HB. OTO-Melara HITFIST-30P turrets were initially imported complete from Italy, since 2007 they have been assembled by Bumar Łabędy, and as Polonization progresses, they have been produced there since 2010 (welded from aluminum).
Compared to the BTR-60, the vehicle is over 30 cm taller. Despite this, due to the use in asymmetric conflicts, where the side has an advantage in armour, weapons, artillery and aviation (e.g. the invasion of Afghanistan in the 21st century), most losses were recorded from fugas and sabotage, e.g. electronics.
Closer interior view of KTO Rosomak, for gunner seat (left) and driver seat (right).
The HITFIST-30P turret itself was made of armored aluminum and equipped with additional ceramic armor. The armament is controlled by a fire control system equipped with a DNRS-288 day/night sight, a 2nd generation TILDE FC thermal imaging camera and a laser rangefinder. Since 2016, thermal imaging cameras can be replaced during renovations with new Polish third-generation cameras KLW-1R by PCO. Additional equipment is a set of sensors of the SSP-1 Obra-3 system and a smoke grenade launcher. The curb weight of the turret is 2350 kg, and the combat weight is 2850 kg. The turret traverse is possible in the full range of 360 degrees, and the armament elevation angles are between -10 and +60 degrees. The stock of ready-to-use 30 mm ammunition is 220 rounds, another 250 rounds are stored in two magazines under the turret. The equipment includes Pimco's chemical and radioactive contamination detection system CHERDES I, and since 2009 CHERDES II.
- Armor packages, what's the APC offers?
Controversy after the choice of armored personnel carrier aroused the issue of its armor. The political and media debate on this subject led to the destruction of one copy of the vehicle during firing tests in Poland. However, the armoring of the vehicle is typical for armored personnel carriers of this weight category, with the requirement of buoyancy. The armor is modular and can be reinforced. The main layer of the self-supporting hull was made of 8 mm thick steel sheet. At a distance of 35 mm from the main armour, an outer armour, 6 mm thick, is mounted. It can be replaced - as in the Finnish prototype - with ceramics or a composite, thus improving the armor ballistic resistance, but sacrificing the buoyancy. The level of protection of the Rosomak against 14.5 mm rounds from the front and 7.62 mm from other directions is typical and does not differ from, for example, the Stryker vehicles used by the US Army or other similar vehicles. The basic version of the vehicle has ballistic protection of the hull in the front 120 degrees at level IV according to the NATO STANAG 4569 standard (against 14.5 mm caliber ammunition at a distance of 200 m), and in the remaining range at level III (against 7.62×54 mm at a distance of 30 m or a 155 mm round burst at a distance of 60 m). The HITFIST-30 turret is welded from 17 to 25 mm thick aluminum plates and protects against 12.7 mm rounds in the forward range of 120 degrees, and against 7.62 mm rounds in the remaining range. Resistance against explosives and mines is up to 6 kg of explosive. The interior of the vehicle is lined with an aramid spall lining.
KTO Rosomak in Polish service. Standard armored personnel carrier for the Army.
The Ministry of National Defense accepted the buoyancy requirement as a priority, except for the version intended for Afghanistan. For vehicles intended for the Polish contingent in Afghanistan, in mid-2007, sets of additional armor were purchased from the Israeli company Rafael, mounted on the side, rear and front surfaces of the upper plate, ensuring resistance above level IV of the STANAG 4569 standard. 56 of such sets were ordered, the first of which were assembled in field conditions in Afghanistan before the end of July this year. The assembly time of the set by trained personnel is approx. 4 hours.
Rosomak M3 with OSS-D open turret. Also in service for Polish Army in Afghanistan.
Since 2010, Rosomaks have received Polish secondary armour, manufactured at HSW-Huta Stali Jakościowych, along with lightweight anti-HEAT screens. The front upper hull plate was covered with a 130 mm thick composite module, made of several plates of different thickness and hardness, probably sandwiched with aramid and other materials, with air gaps, providing protection against HEAT warheads equivalent to 330 mm of armor (RHA), and taking into account the slope - about 500 mm. It should also provide resistance against e.g. the older 30 mm ammunition of the Russian 2A42 cannons (used e.g. in the BMP-2). The sides received 8 mm modules of two layers of 10 mm thick steel, separated by a 75 mm air gap, which provided protection according to STANAG level IV. The turret received 40 mm thick composite armor modules made of ceramic tiles on an aramid base, also raising the shield to level IV. The combat weight of the armored Rosomak does not exceed 26 tons.
Possible Rosomak-M3 version in Polish service at Afghanistan with 3 soldiers carrying Beryl assault rifle. Note the OSS-D open turret (with no mounted gun).
In the M3 version, the OSS-D open turret had Tier III armor. Together with the use of modern RPGNet mesh side screens with metal elements at the intersection of wires, the additional armor provided a very high level of protection against the most common HEAT rocket launchers. It is even estimated in the literature that the Rosomak was the best protected wheeled combat vehicle in the theater of operations in Afghanistan until the appearance of the heavier GTK Boxer APC's. Explosions of mines, as a rule, only led to the destruction of repairable suspension elements, while the loss of vehicles and crews was mainly caused by large gaps, against which there is no effective protection. Despite this, it is estimated that the Rosomak performed relatively well in terms of crew protection against fugas explosions. After the return of about 100 Rosomaks used there from Afghanistan, additional armor was dismantled during repairs, apart from 6 reserve vehicles for subsequent missions.
- Variants of KTO Rosomak, what are the roles?
- Rosomak - Infantry fighting vehicle variant with an OTO-Melara HITFIST-30P gun turret armed with a 30 mm ATK Mk 44 chain gun and 7.62mm NATO UKM-2000C coaxial machine gun. The turret has advanced fire control systems with thermal sights and an Obra laser warning system SSP-1 OBRA-3 manufactured by Bumar Soldier SA, connected to six 81 mm 902A ZM Dezamet smoke grenade launchers. The standard supply of ammunition is 80 APFSDS-T armor-piercing rounds and 120 MP-T multi-purpose fragmentation-incendiary-tracer rounds (only multi-purpose rounds can be used). Vehicles of this version used on missions outside the country had reinforced ballistic armor (Rosomak-M1) and with protection against HEAT rounds (RPG-7 and similar) with QinetiQ RPGNet (Rosomak-M1M).
Infantry fighting vehicle variant modified for war in Afghanistan was called "Rosomak-M1M", it was equipped with additional steel-composite armor, upgraded communications, wire cutters in front of driver and commander hatch, video cameras showing back and sides of vehicle on two LCD screens in troop compartment, Pilar system that detects the direction of fire. Because of additional armor this variant cannot float and has no water propellers. This variant was further upgraded to standard known as M1M. Most noticeable change is addition of QinetiQ RPGNet anti RPG cages and new "sand" camouflage.
Polish Rosomak-M1M in Afghanistan with RPGNet cages installed around the vehicle.
Other changes include installation of Duke anti IED system and Blue Force Tracking BMS system (systems on loan from US Army). All older ("green") Rosomaks in M1 standard also received RPG Net. Since 2022 Rosomak will be produced with ZSSW-30 unmanned turret armed with 30mm gun, UKM-2000 machine gun and Spike ATGM.
The original Rosomak, this one in particular is amphibious. Note the water propellers on the rear of the vehicle.
- Rosomak-M2 and M3 - Armored personnel carrier variant modified for mission in Afghanistan equipped with similar task equipment (including additional armor) as M1 variant. The main difference is that this variant is equipped with OSS-D open turret with 40 mm Mk-19 grenade launcher or 12.7 mm NSW/WKM-B heavy machine gun. It's also possible to be mounted with other small arms (they could be 7.62 mm PKM or UKM-2000 GPMG). This patrol version of the Rosomak was also used in Chad; with the same additional armor, similar to the vehicles with the Hitfist-30P turret.
Rosomak M2 (left) and M3 (right). Note on how different the open turret configurations. M3 has larger size turret than the M2. Both mounted guns on these APC's seem to be absent.
- Rosomak-S - Armored personnel carrier variant for two anti-tank teams armed with Spike anti-tank guided missile. Essentially a basic version of the carrier without armament, equipped with seats as in the combat version and racks for transporting Spike ATGMs in the passenger compartment. Unveiled in 2007, it carries two sections with a regular and additional fire unit (8 missiles in total).
The Rosomak-S with 2 Spike missiles deployed in a presentation. Very similar to earlier Rosomak's without any turret installed.
- Rosomak-WEM - (WEM for Wóz Ewakuacji Medycznej – lit. "medical evacuation vehicle") – armored ambulance vehicle with crew of 3, capable of transporting 3 injured soldiers on stretchers and an additional four in sitting position. The WEM-M variant for Afghanistan was equipped with additional armor and RPGNet same as in M1M variant. Vehicle role is for providing first aid, including resuscitation and stabilization of life functions in hazardous areas, and evacuation of the most seriously injured to the zone where it is possible to land medical rescue helicopters, which then transport the injured to field hospitals. Rebuilt from the base variant, it is distinguished mainly by a raised superstructure in the rear part (interior height up to 190 cm) and a folding observation and lighting mast. The height is 3331 mm. It carries three wounded on stretchers and three seated, the crew consists of four people. The first 6 vehicles were handed over on January 9, 2008. These vehicles were characterized by leaving the central plate of the ceiling and a slightly narrower superstructure. Further vehicles delivered from 2009 were built in the final modified version, with the central slab of the ceiling removed, which increased the amount of space, and a new superstructure, the walls of which are extensions of the sides.
The Rosomak-WEM, note on elongated roof structure for more passenger rooms and lack of smoke dischargers. Also seem to be amphibious with water propeller in the rear.
- Rosomak-WRT - (WRT for Wóz Rozpoznania Technicznego – lit. "technical reconnaissance vehicle")
The Rosomak-WRT with engineering accessories installed in top and smoke dischargers. Also amphibious with the water propeller on the rear.
- Rosomak-WSRiD - (WSRiD for Wielosensorowy System Rozpoznania i Dozoru – lit. "multisensory reconnaissance and supervision system")
Rosomak-WSRiD for reconaissance purposes in a presentation. Note on devices on rear roof structure above passenger seats.
- Rosomak-AWD - (AWD for Artyleryjski Wóz Dowodzenia – lit. "artillery command vehicle") – Command vehicle for M120K Rak mortar company fire module.
The Rosomak-AWD, note on flat top, 3 antennas for mortar team communication devices and different placements of smoke dischargers.
- Rosomak-WD - (WD for Wóz Dowodzenia – lit. "command vehicle"). The first 7 were commissioned in 2018.
The Rosomak-WD along with other 2 Rosomaks on a convoy with camouflage net installed, note the elongated roof top (same as Rosomak-WEM), smoke dischargers and antenna (folded) for communication devices.
- Rosomak M120K "Rak" - 120 mm mortar artillery vehicle, first delivered in July 2017. Essentially a 120mm self-propelled field gun designed at Huta Stalowa Wola, mounted on the KTO Rosomak chassis (wheeled version).
The Rak mortar vehicle, with a completely new designed 120 mm mortar turret and smoke dischargers, with other 2 Raks following in a convoy.
- Rosomak-NJ - (NJ for Nauka Jazdy – lit. "driving school")
Rarely seen Rosomak-NJ, for drive training vehicle. Possibly just a prototype.
There was other planned versions that may be delivered to the military in the future, they are:
- An infantry carrier vehicle (Rosomak-1) with a remotely controlled weapon module with a 12.7 mm machine gun and a passive day/night or thermal vision sight. The vehicle selection program was launched only in mid-2005. The Israeli remote weapons station Rafael RCWS-12.7 won the competition. But after repetition of the last stage, the Polish Kobuz RCWS developed by OBR SM was selected, and after another repetition in 2006 - the Italian OTO-Melara HITROLE won. Finally, in 2007, this version was abandoned.
This isn't exactly KTO Rosomak, it's just a KTO Rys, a vehicle based and developed from Polish OT-64 SKOT's. The image purpose is for showing the Kobuz RWS, note on roof by the rear.
- General military reconnaissance vehicles: Rosomak-R1 (Rosomak-WDR) in the command and reconnaissance and Rosomak-R2 (Rosomak-WR) in reconnaissance versions - initially a shorter (by about 60 cm) six-wheeled version of the Rosomak (Patria AMV in 6×6) was ordered for reconnaissance units, which was first presented at MSPO in September 2005, then the decision was changed and an eight-wheel reconnaissance vehicle was chosen.
- Technical assistance vehicle (Rosomak-WPT), a prototype built in 2020.
The Rosomak-WPT, note the recovery crane and dozer blade installed for vehicle recovery purposes and road service in battlefield.
- Contamination reconnaissance vehicle or NBC reconnaissance vehicle (Rosomak-RSK).
- Artillery reconnaissance vehicle (Rosomak-AWR) - part of the M120K Rak company fire module. Equipped with an on-board observation and reconnaissance set with the SR Hawk (V)2 battlefield radar and the FLIR Systems TacFLIR 280-HD optoelectronic head on a foldable 4-meter mast, and a portable observation and reconnaissance set. It is armed with a remotely controlled 7.62 mm UKM-2000C station and has the Obra-3C self-defense system. The prototype was created in 2020, and the qualification tests were completed in March 2021.
The Rosomak AWR, a part of Rak mortar vehicle module. Note the battlefield radar and reconaissance mast on rear, with an RWS with 7.62 mm GPMG also installed.
- Rosomak Heavy Infantry Fighting Vehicle with the ZSSW-30 unmanned turret armed with a 30 mm ATK Mk 44S automatic cannon, UKM-2000C machine gun and a dual Spike LR missile launcher. In July 2022, a contract was signed for the delivery of 70 vehicles in the years 2024-2027.
The present production of KTO Rosomak Heavy IFV, with ZSSW-30 unmanned turret. Possibly in production and delivered for 2024.
- Rosomak Scipio - created in 2015 by mounting on the platform of the KTO Rosomak 8×8 vehicle in the base version the Turra 30 unmanned turret produced by the group of Slovak companies DMD and EVPU. The turret was originally developed for the modernization of Slovakian BMP-1/BMP-2 vehicles. According to other sources, the turret was created to meet the requirements of the Slovak army for the successor of the OT-64 SKOT transporters.
Rosomak Scipio, for Slovakian Army. Note the turret is very different from standard KTO Rosomak. Equipped with Turra 30 mm turret (2A42 cannon and 2 banks of Fagot ATGM)
The turret is armed with a 30 mm caliber 2A42 cannon of Russian design, manufactured in Slovakia, a 7.62-mm PKT machine gun and two Fagot anti-tank guided missiles launchers, a sighting and targeting system with a TV and thermal imaging camera, a laser rangefinder, a stabilization system and an automatic tracking a marked target. The weight of the tower is less than 1500 kg. According to the manufacturer of the turret, it can be adapted to mount other sets of armament or equipment, for example the American Bushmaster II cannon used in Poland or the Spike LR missile. The first public presentation of the Scipio transporter took place during MSPO in Kielce, in September 2015.
- Rosomak-M - presented in September 2015 during the MSPO in Kielce as a proposal of the Rosomak SA company. As part of the modernization, the hull was modified to increase the buoyancy of the vehicle in order to ensure the ability to overcome water obstacles by swimming with an increased gross vehicle weight (GVM) (from 22.5 to 23 .5 tons), while it was indicated that the transporter's hull will undergo further modernization in order to ensure the ability to float at GVW increased to 24 tons. In addition, e.g. the Rosomak turret was integrated with two Spike ATGM launchers, a battlefield control system (BMS) was installed, the fire control system was modified by providing the "hunter-killer" capability, the air conditioning/heating system was improved, the armor was changed, seats were installed to reduce the effects of mine explosions or IED's (improvised explosive device).
Rosomak-M in presentation with extendable bows used (left) and folded (right). Note the water propeller on the rear for swimming purposes.
- Rosomak-XP - presented in September 2015 during the MSPO in Kielce as a proposal from Patria and Rosomak SA. As part of the modernization, the GVW was increased from 26 to about 30-32 tons. In addition, a new 450 kW engine, a new drive system, new 16.00 R20 wheels, a new rear landing ramp were installed, and the degree of ballistic and anti-mine protection was also increased. Based on Polish experience, the Finnish company prepared a new version called Patria AMV2 Havoc with a maximum permissible weight of 32 tons, offered to the USMC.
A turretless Rosomak XP (left) with passenger interior view (right). Also called Patria AMV2 Havoc.
- Rosomak-MLU - proposal from Rosomak SA to modernize and improve the APC's parameters. In 2022, a demonstrator was presented, marked MLU or Mid-Life Upgrade.
A concept drawing of Rosomak MLU, lengthened chassis, new armor layouts. Vehicle seemed to be amphibious-oriented by looking at swimming bows folded at front.
- MLU level 1 includes a renovation with an extension of the service life from 30 to 40 years and minor improvements to increase functionality (e.g. LED lighting).
- MLU level 2 introduces, above all, an increase in the volume of the hull and load capacity of the existing transporters by extending the chassis and hull in the middle part by 40 cm. It enables an increase in the permissible total weight by two tons, up to 28 tonnes, and for swimming - up to 25.5 tonnes. In this variant, external armor with a changed structure was used, without the side plates breaking in the lower part, increasing the width to 3 metres. At the rear, a hydraulically lowered ramp with a single door was used instead of a double door.
- MLU level 3 proposal is analogous to MLU level 2, but assumes the production of vehicles immediately in this standard.
KTO Rosomak MLU in MSPO 2022 presentation, with lengthened chassis and turret upgrades as seen here.
- Combat History of KTO Rosomak, is it battle proven?
- War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
The Polish Land Forces contingent, which was a part of the International Security Assistance Force operated over 100 KTO Rosomak vehicles (including five medevac versions) during the Afghanistan War. The APCs were equipped with additional steel-composite armor. In early 2008 a Polish Rosomak serving in Afghanistan (the version with upgraded armor) was attacked by the Taliban. The vehicle was hit by RPG-7 rockets, but it managed to fire back and then returned to base without any help required. In June 2008, a Rosomak was attacked by Taliban and was hit in its frontal armor with an RPG. The armour was not penetrated. In 2009, the first soldier was reported killed while traveling in a Rosomak after an improvised explosive device exploded under the vehicle, which rolled over and crushed the gunner who had been standing in the open turret. Similar attacks had occurred before but had failed to inflict casualties.
Standard KTO Rosomak in dark green color, patrolling in Afghanistan.
In May 2007, the first 24 Rosomaks with the Hitfist turret were sent to support the Polish Military Contingent in Afghanistan and from mid-June they entered combat operations. It was also the combat debut of the AMV family armored personnel carriers. From the end of July 2007, they were equipped with additional armor on site. The vehicles were highly rated by soldiers and specialists, having a large firepower (greater, for example, than the American M2 Bradley IFVs). In the first half of the year, they traveled over 85,000 km and several were damaged, including two seriously on grouches , but the crews were not seriously injured. Later fights were also associated with relatively few losses in crews, primarily in vehicles destroyed by high-power fugas. As a result of intense fighting, the number of Rosomaks in Afghanistan increased and in 2010 there were 89 of them, and the largest number was 134 (a total of 181 vehicles were sent). According to unconfirmed estimates, almost all of the vehicles were hit by small arms or anti-tank weapons at least once, and more than half required repairs. They were most often attacked with anti-tank rocket launchers of the RPG-7 family and large-caliber machine guns (12.7 mm and 14.5 mm). Despite this, irretrievable losses on the spot amounted to 8 Rosomak M1M and 6 M3, and after damage tests in Poland, a total of over 30 vehicles were struck from the stock. The secondary armor fulfilled its function against the anti-tank agents used in this conflict and it is estimated that the use of armored Rosomaks allowed to save the health or lives of over a hundred soldiers.
Rosomak-M1M's in service at Afghanistan. They are used for patrolling the villages, convoy with infantry in MRAP's. Humvee's (Tumak's in service) etc.
- European Union mission in Chad (2007–2008)
The European Union Force Chad/CAR was the moment where Polish Armed Forces provided assistance with 400 troops deployed, 16 KTO Rosomak APCs, three Mi-17 helicopters and one C-295 transport aircraft.
Some place in Chad, a soldier with Mini-Beryl carbine with EoTech Holographic sight. Along with Tarpan Honker light jeep and 2 units of Rosomak vehicles convoy, following behind.
- Operators of KTO Rosomak, who are the users?
Poland is the sole user of the KTO Rosomak, but as the first export customer of Patria, AMV & WZM SA has the right to export the KTO Rosomak in some markets. In 2006 the KTO Rosomak was tested in Malaysia.
Polish Land Forces - 903 in different versions (as of 2020). The first Rosomak APC's were handed over to the army on January 8, 2005 - the first user was the 17th Mechanized Brigade from Międzyrzecz.
KTO Rosomak vehicles are currently used in 4 brigades and 1 regiment of the Land Forces:
- 17th Greater Poland Mechanized Brigade
- 12th Szczecin Mechanized Brigade
- 15th Giżycko Mechanized Brigade
In 2018, only 120mm RAK mortars, Medical Evacuation Vehicles (WEM) and KMO RAK command vehicles were adopted for the brigade - ultimately, versions with an unmanned turret and a 30mm cannon are also to be adopted for the unit.
- 21st Podhale Rifles Brigade
In 2018, only 120mm RAK mortars, Medical Evacuation Vehicles (WEM) and KMO RAK command vehicles were adopted for the brigade - ultimately, versions with an unmanned turret and a 30mm cannon are also to be adopted for the unit.
- Command Support Regiment of the Multinational Division North East Headquarters (Command and IT support vehicles only)
In the fall of 2006, four APCs with a turret, repainted in white, were prepared for deployment as part of the UN peacekeeping mission ( UNIFIL ) to Lebanon, but their deployment there was suspended.
On January 9, 2008, the Army took over the first 6 Rosomaks-WEM.
Polish Army infantry unit disembarking from a KTO Rosomak. Note the split doors, possibly some earlier Rosomak's in service.
In the Polish service, the size of a motorized infantry team transported on Rosomaks was assumed to be eight or nine soldiers, of which the crew consists of three soldiers that are vehicle operators (driver, gunner, crew commander). This resulted in the reduction of the team's fire section to five or six soldiers (criticized in the professional press). As a result, two passenger seats were removed from the APCs used in Afghanistan to increase the space for equipment. The motorized platoon consists of four cars, three of which carry the motorized team and the fourth the support section. The fire section of the motorized team consists of six (or five) soldiers, including the team leader, general purpose machine gunner (UKM-2000P), anti-tank rocket launcher (RPG-7W) and cupola gunners. In addition to team weapons, the fire section has carbines (Beryl or Mini-Beryl), one of them with a Pallad grenade launcher; the crew commander also has a carbine. In addition to them, the platoon commander and his radio operator (both with carbines) occupy the transporters, or according to a different structure, four soldiers of the platoon command. The support section also has five soldiers, armed with a 60mm LM-60 mortar and a 40mm Mk 19 automatic grenade launcher, in addition to carbines.
- United Arab Emirates
About 40 AMV Patria vehicles manufactured in Poland.
- Specifications of a KTO Rosomak
Rosomak na wodzie? O kurwa!
- Mass: 22,000 kg (49,000 lb)
- Length: 7.7 m (25 ft)
- Width: 2.8 m (9 ft 2 in)
- Height: 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in)
- Crew: 3 (commander, driver, gunner) + 8 passengers.
- Main armament: - 1 × 30×173 mm ATK Mk44 Bushmaster II gun
- 1 × 12.7 mm WKM-B or 1 × 40mm Mk 19 in Rosomak M3
- Secondary armament: 1 × 7.62×51mm NATO UKM-2000C coaxial general purpose machine gun.
- Engine: DI 12 Scania diesel 360 kW (480 hp) or 405 kW (543 hp)
- Power/weight: 15.6 kW/t (21.2 PS/t) (max weight)
- Suspension: 8×8 wheeled.
- Operational range: 800 km (500 mi)
- Maximum speed: - over 100km/h (60 mph) on land
- up to 10 km/h (6.2 mph) in water
- Your references for vehicle comparison (IRL and Project Reality-oriented)
Project Reality in-game equivalent:
- M1126 Stryker ICV, featured in US Army.
- LAV III, featured in Canadian Forces.
- LAV-25 and Coyote Reconaissance Vehicle, featured in US Marine Corps and Canadian Forces.
- Boxer AFV, featured in Dutch Forces.
- VBCI, featured in French Forces.
In-Real Life equivalent:
- Patria AMV (the "OG vehicle") from Finland.
- K808 White Tiger from South Korea.
- Tusan AFV from IR Iran.
- Freccia IFV from Italy.
- BTR-90 from Russia.
- CM-32 Clouded Leopard from Taiwan.
- Type 96 APC from Japan.
- BTR-4 from Ukraine.
- Saur 2 from Romania.
- FNSS Pars from Turkiye.
- MOWAG Piranha from Switzerland.
Sources: wikipedia.com/pl, tanks-encyclopedia.com, defence24.pl etc.
Thank you for reading! Happy holidays.
Wolvie mówi: dziękuję za przeczytanie.
PS: More images coming soon. Because i'm in a hurry, i have to save the work here, since i'm afraid of this disappearing and have to start over.
PS2: Published for early sneak peek, still finding some images...
PS3: DONE! Enjoy reading! Might add some more stuff, so stay tuned.